Integrated Project Control system using PowerBI

One of the most popular discussion in planning forum is how to have an integrated project control system, every practitioner has a different opinion how it must be done, and of course you get a lot of marketing from people trying to sells their systems

In this blog, we share high level description of a data warehouse built using PowerBI desktop.

Data warehouse are not widespread in the construction industry, because the reporting specifications are different from project to project, and every client has a different systems and tools, and trying to have a standard system works only if you are the main contractor but if you are a subcontractor you have to adopt the client system.

Another reason is; it required a specialised IT skills, we are just business users not programmers, we do understand data very well, but not necessarily having the skills and tools to manage it, The good news is, with the rise of self-service Business intelligence, we have exactly that, Powerful data management tools yet accessible (assuming you want to learn something else than Excel).


So at high level this is how it works.

 Project Controls Data Warehouse

  • The Data warehouse was built using PowerBI desktop, I know it should be called sematic model, (for me data model, data warehouse are fundamentally the same thing), initially it was using Excel PowerPivot but it did not scale well with the increase of the volume of data.


  • As the data is not always in the format we want, PowerQuery is very handy in this case, as virtually it can transform any source of data, example lookup the subsystem using the tag field, trying to do that if you have 8 Million rows using Excel or Access is not feasible.


  • We maintain Master tables to integrate all the different source of data (tags, WBS, subsystems etc)



  • Every week, we get new Export from the source systems (Cobra, proprietary database systems etc), we load the new data and keep the historical records, it took 15 minute to refresh, which is quite impressive, Cobra alone is a folder 60 Excel file, and nearly 2 Giga in size.


  • Usually you publish your reports into service to end users once your refresh your data model, in our case we can’t use the cloud for privacy reason, instead we use Excel as a reporting tool that pull the data from PowerBI desktop, the advantage of this approach is that we have different reports for different users, Skyline, Gantt chart, Client reports (in their required format), management reports etc.


Some thoughts.

  • As you can see Primavera P6 is used only as a forecasting tool and to calculate the critical path, the earned value calculation is done in the data model, personally I think P6 should not be used as the centre of your project control system, I remember the first time I start learning Primavera P3 ( a long time ago:), we kept asking the trainer how it is possible to track the spent hours at the activity level, the answer is we don’t, actually deciding at which level you track you spent hours it is the most important decision to make when you start a new project.


  • the basic idea here is in order to have an integrated project controls system is stop trying to have one, data will be always in silo, don’t try to change other department how they manage their specific data, it will not work and they will not listen to you anyway, So instead of trying to have one system to rule them all, just use the existing systems and build a data warehouse for reporting and Integration with P6.

Mapping Primavera P6

If you work for the main contractor or doing an EPC contract, then there is already a well-established project controls systems and procedures applied enterprise wide, all the projects use the same approach and methodology, all you have to do is just learn it and fellow the procedures.

Now when you work for a subcontractor it become tricky, although there are already systems and procedure in place, you need to fellow the main contractor specifications.

In this blog, I will share a generic approach that is agnostic to the client’s tools, it is not a step by step tutorial as every client has a different systems and terminology, but I hope you can adapted it to your particular case.

First you can implement the mapping system in any database systems you are familiar with, you can use MS access, SQL server or any open source database,

I will use Cobra as the progress measurement systems and Primavera as the planning tool, this is only an example, any other combination will works, as we exchange data using Excel and we use activity codes as a reference,  all the planning tools support some kind of activity codes.

Why do we need mapping in the first place?

Updating a schedule is a time consuming task!! And it is prone to errors and personal judgement of the planners involved,  generally  the update process involve two steps.

  • Updating the facts ( Actual Start, Actual Finish, Earned Hours , remaining duration)
  • Review the update and analyse the results (critical Path, Forecast Curve) and check for any discrepancies, and thinking of mitigation plans if there are slippage.

If step 1 is done manually then obviously the planner will have less time for step 2, which I think is the most important Task.

I think a better approach is to make step 1 fully automated and let the planners do step 2 which cannot be automated (unless computer become self-aware).


How to do the mapping then.

  • Manual, most used approach, the planner open the progress spreadsheet and manually copy the hours and the new status, either by filtering or a pivot, or on ad hoc basis (nice word to say guess work).


  • Primavera activity ID is manually assigned to cobra, Cobra then will make an export with the new status grouped by activity id, the disadvantage of this approach is, it is hard to maintain when the take-off change which is natural fact of life in construction projects and there is no transparency why the mapping was done in such way, still it is way much better than the first one.


  • Dynamic mapping: instead of manually assigning activity id in cobra, we define a new primary key in P6 that based on fixed rules will automatically generated link to Cobra.

How this dynamic mapping works:


We don’t use Primavera activity id, instead we define a new natural key, let’s call it P6_PK, this key define the exact scope of work of one activity, in this example we have two type of activities:

We can use this P6_PK as the activity id, but if you have already a baseline, you can’t touch the activity id and sometimes the default length of the activity is too short.

Let’s define some terms:

Activity Level 3: P6_PK  is  Area|P6 price code

Activity Level 4: P6_PK  is  Group|P6 price code

– Group: a group of tags that have common characteristic: by subsystems, major package, cables grouped by destination, or origin or whatever the schedule is grouped by. Or simply how you think the work will be done.

– P6 price code: the MTO has a very detailed breakdown for the price, obviously we can’t use them otherwise we end up with a massive schedule, instead we group the code to a manageable level.

In P6 (or MS Project or whatever you are using) define new codes, Area and P6 price code.

Create two tables.

P6 price code: define how you group your MTO Price code to P6 price code

Group:    define how you want to group your tag.

The Database will look up the group from the group table and P6 price code from your P6 Price code, then generate P6_Pk from that then we get the activity id.

Obviously I just outlined the fundamental concept, in real project, it is much complex, P6 price code may have different level of details in the same schedule, and some tags may have different groups based on the type of activities, we may keep excavation at the level 3 but pouring concrete for foundations at level 4.  (Hint you can new dimensions to your dictionary tables)

Please notice I use Level 3/4 just for the purpose of mapping, it is not to reflect the level of the schedule which is an open question. (Two planners will tell you different thing)


The output of the system:

  • The new status of the activities. ( import back to P6)
  • The new scope that are not mapped.( update the new groups and price code eventually)
  • The activities that used be mapped but now lost the scope ( statue them as completed, as there is no more scope)

The time to update P6 was significantly reduced (by order of magnitude), the system was implemented using PowerPivot/Power Query as filtering and manipulating huge list of data is more convenient in Excel.


The challenge

The biggest challenge was how to combined all the weekly export from cobra in Excel and combined them in one table and add other data from other systems to get a format required for the mapping, if you are an SQL ninja it is doable but if you are a planner what you do, there was no easy answer before, but now we have it, Build a data-warehouse in PowerBI, but that’s a blog for another day.

How to connect to Primavera SQLite database

if you have a standalone installation of Primavera using SQLite, and you want to see the data stored there, either for reporting or just by curiosity to study the schema, it is pretty easy to do that using Powerquery.

unfortunately there is no native connectors to SQLite but you can use ODBC, please fellow this tutorial how to download and install the drivers ( sorry you need admin right, that’s why you should be always nice with the IT).

we don’t use standalone installation at work, I just download one installation from Oracle site in my home computer, the installation is valid for 1 month, once it is installed i copied the SQLite file generated by Primavera with all the template Projects.

the connection string is like this

Source = Odbc.DataSource(“driver={SQLite3 ODBC Driver};database=C:\sqlite\PPMDBSQLite.db;longnames=0;timeout=1000;notxn=0;dsn=SQLite Datasource”, [HierarchicalNavigation=true])

use the same password and username used for installation

don’t query directly the file, but use a copy, there is a risk that you corrupt your file.


keep in mind the tables in Primavera are highly normalized, and the spread data are not stored ( for example forecast labor units per day/task), so depending on your reporting requirements it can be a non trivial task.

anyway My PowerBI template now use either xer or sqlite to generate reports.

Using PowerQuery to read Primavera Xer file

You can download the file here  or view the reports online

The last time I tried parsing an Xer file, I was using VBA and it was a horrible experience, anyway that was three years ago, The problem was not VBA per se, but supporting the different combination of Excel and Windows, I still receive sometimes emails from users complaining that Xer reader do not work for them, after a while I concluded it is not worth the effort.

Yesterday for no reason, I got this idea why not trying Powerquery , in 10 minutes I had a working prototype without writing a single line of code!!!  even better it reads in bulk, copy a bunch of xer in the same folders, and there are loaded, only conditions they needs to have the same revisions( don’t mix P6 rev 7 with rev 8), as different revisions of P6 introduce some minor changes in the Xer schema, ( they add or remove some columns)

It is only a proof of concepts, I only loaded some tables, (activities and activities code), the data is loaded in the Data Model, and you need at least Excel 2013 with the free PowerQuery Installed.


Make sure you write the path to where your Xer is stored


You need to refresh the Queries here


Here is a pivot with some measures, now you can group only by Project and Activity codes and obviously by activity id.


I test it with two Xer that contains 47 projects

How to import Progress to Primavera

It is quick post showing how to import activities status to Primavera using Excel.

Cobra is as an example for a progress measurement system, it can be any other systems.

In P6 always use new template, never trust an old file as things may have changed in the meantime and you end up with discrepancies.

Assuming the schedule is resource loaded, you need first to import

  • The new activities status ( actual start, actual finish, remaining duration )
  • The new resource status ( Budget hours, Earned Hours, at completion hours)

You need to import first the activity status then the hours.

  • Export activities status from P6

Make sure you select Export type, Activities


The Activity ID, activity status and WBS code are selected by default, you need to add Actual start, Actual Finish and Remaining duration


P6 will export an excel file LIKE THIS


Now you can transfer the progress data from  COBRA, using the activity id as a reference, don’t change the WBS code.

In some cases you may let P6 calculate the remaining duration, personally I prefer to do the calculation outside P6, as it is more flexible, for example you can calculate remaining duration based the actual productivity, which is very easy to do in Excel

Import back to Excel, Make sure to save any error message

  • Import the hours

The same approach, make sure you select, resource assignment




Make sure to update only the column (Budget units, Actual unit, At Completion Units),

The activity status cannot be updated from this template that’s why you need first to import the activity status and then the resource status.

Note: if the activity status is completed, make sure actual unit = at Completion units.

P6 can assign multiple resources to the same activity, so make sure you don’t have duplicate resources assigned.

Why you must automate the whole thing ?

As you can see the import to P6 is rather straightforward, probably you are asking why I am blogging about it in the first place?  And the reason is how do you know your import was successful?

Ok for the hours it is easy, if the total hours match, then the import was probably successful, but what if the total hours do not match? Or how do you know the activity status is updated correctly

One approach is to design a system for example in Excel , Modern Excel or Access that do the following.

  • Automatically map P6 activity ID to Cobra.
  • Generate the activity status and compare it to the current P6 status
  • Import the new status to P6
  • Redo step 2 and 3 until the status in P6 match exactly the status in Cobra.

Now if you are spending too much time manually updating P6 ( we all done that), I think it is unfortunate, and honestly it a waste of time better spend in analysis the schedule, ok it is easy said than done, and there are many technical and non technical roadblock to have such a system in place, but I think the most important one, the Planner responsible for the initial preparation of the baseline is more concerned to have his schedule approved than to worry about how the schedule will be maintained later. ( usually it is other planners problems).

but if you stick to this general rules, probably you will do fine

  • Only use, contractual Milestones, Access Milestones and resources loaded activities.
  • Schedule activities should never be more detailed than your Bill of Quantities
  • if you can not measure a task, don’t use it
  • don’t use level of effort just for presentation purpose.

Edit : 17-04-2017, for complex project, we just use one generic resource to load the total hours and earned hours per activity,  trying to load individual resource type is not feasible  and become a nightmare to manage and honestly even getting the “spent Hours” at the activity level is not possible,  that’s why I think Earned valued and productivity analysis should be done outside P6

How to use Excel as a Front End to Power BI Desktop

You can download the data model, the excel frond ends and the data sets in this folder.

The techniques used in the spreadsheet for connecting to PowerBI Desktop are not officially supported by Microsoft,  but I think are useful to understand how the MS BI stack works, especially if you are coming from an Excel Background, and Installing SQL server developer is either intimidating or not allowed.

I really appreciate if you vote for this idea to make this scenario offically supported by Microsoft

As far I am aware there are two approach to access PowerBI desktop, or more correctly the SSAS instance launched by Power BI Desktop.

  • Connecting using a live connection, detailed here
  • Connecting using PowerQuery, detailed here


The live connection is very interesting but it has the drawback that if you close PowerBI Desktop the pivot table stop working, so you can not share the spreadsheet, one solution is to use cube formula as they are persistent, if you don’t use know what a cube formula is then you are missing of the most powerful feature of Excel.

But what if you want to have a pivot chart, or a pivot table that you can keep using even if you lose the connection, or if you want to share the results with people that have not access to the data model,  turn out it is possible, welcome to Excel Pivot cache


  • Invoke the function SSAS_QUERY
  • 1
  • The Parameter is optional:
    • Either you write a DAX Query to retrieve the fields you want, MDX is supported too, personally I find MDX more suitable to import measures with different dimensions, I understand that DAX support this scenario too using crossjoin but I never manage to make it works correctly.
    • or Just click ok, than you can browse the SSAS cube, you can select any dimensions and measures you want, but mind that for a big cube, a query fetch the result faster.
  • Keep Powerquery as a connection only.
  • Insert a pivot table, use an external data source, choose connection, select the Powerquery Query, and voila




Excel cache the data in the Pivot, not only that it is extremely compressed.

Notice here PowerPivot is not used at all, Excel is acting as visualisation layer to PowerBI Desktop, leveraging two well known capabilities cube formula and Pivot cache.

Microsoft plan to release SQL server this year, and then we can deploy the data model built with Power BI /Powerpivot /Powerquery into a production system, that’s what I call a natural growing path from self service to corporate BI.


Thin and Core workbook without Sharepoint or SSAS

edit : 1/1/2017, another option is described here, the thin workbook connect directly to Power BI desktop, very handy if: your client are still on Excel 2010, or you don’t want to share the data in the data model but just the results.


The concept of thin and core workbook was familiarized by the guys at PowerPivotPro, but they assume, either you have SharePoint installed or a connection to the cloud.

Let’s assume the only resource you have are:

  • Your PC.
  • A local server used for shared folders.

Backend and Front End approach

if you have small data sets then load everything to PowerPivot and do the reports in the same workbook, but if you are dealing with a lot of data sets, and you need to provide tailored reports to different people, typical example your client wants a particular format, the PM want a different format, the construction manager wants something different altogether, we all know what the commissioning guy wants 🙂

Then a sensible approach is to separate the data model from the reports itself, the backend will be used to store the data and a front end to report and visual the data.

Front End:

Excel: natural choice for many obvious reasons.

Tableau: has a killer feature in this scenario.


There are many options, depending on the size and the complexity of your data.

1-MS Access:  is a solid option, but if you have tables that have more than 500 000 rows, then perhaps that’s not really a good solution, I know it depends on filed type, number of columns etc., the other issue there is no ETL for MS Access.

2- MS SQL SERVER EXPRESS: it is a free and a kick ass Database server, probably it will load all your data, but if your data is not well structured then it became a pain to load it, there is no free ETL for SQL express, and Powerquery does not natively load to SQL, you can vote for this idea here .

3- PowerBI Desktop: load the data in PowerBI Desktop and access the data from Excel using this hack. It is highly experimental but very promising, it is potentially a game changer.  You can vote here if you want Microsoft to officially support it.

4-PowerPivot: it is already there with Excel, Powerquery can literally load any data you have, it can clean transform with a simple click, and it is free, and don’t forget PowerPivot is a simple SSAS instance embedded in Excel, ok there is a problem 😦

We cannot access PowerPivot Model from another Excel workbook.

PowerPivot data can only be consumed from the same workbook :), I don’t know the reason but definitely it is not technical, all we can do is just to vote and hope Microsoft will listen

But fortunately there are some workaround.

1- Tableau: tableau can read data from a PowerPivot data model, and it has some very amazing visualisation, (not free)

2- PowerUpdate: Powerupdate can load the data directly from the PowerPivot Model to an SQL Server, and bonus point, it can refresh any workbook automatically no need for manual refresh (not free)

3- Reverse Linked Table: instead of using pivot table to read the data from the Pivot tables, we just used tables to get the same result, the Italians provided a detailed explanation here, and to avoid Excel limitation of 1 Million record, you can split the result in new tabs, you can even create summarized data that feed your different report, the only inconvenient here, the size of the workbook will increase with a lot of data.


a simple option to deals with a lot of data is to load all the data source in one Master workbook, then write back the result in the same workbook using Reverse Linked Tables.

Now you can use that Master workbook as your backend for all your reports.

or use PowerBI Desktop as your backend, officially it is not support but Excel can perfectly connect to a local instance of  PowerBI desktop.